Vol.1 No.1 July - December 2013 ISSN: 2321 - 6530

DEGREE OF BURNOUT AMONG TEACHERS WORKING ON CONTRACTUAL BASES



Mohd Suhail
Ph.D. Scholar, Dept. Of IASE
Faculty of Edu. Jamia Millia Islamia
New Delhi–110025
Email ID: - msuhail.edu@gmail.com
And
Dr. Waseem A. Khan
Associate Professor, Dept. Of IASE
Faculty of Edu.Jamia Millia Islamia
New Delhi – 110025
Email ID: - wak.jmi@gmail.com
>


Abstract

Freudburgerwas the person who coined the term burnout; burnout syndrome is a result of prolonged stress, primarily- characterized by physical, emotional and attitudinal exhaustion. In this article researchers explored degree of burnout among teachers who are working on contractual bases in the schools run by the Municipal corporation of Delhi, Researchers used Maslach Burnout Inventory to measure the magnitude of burnout and it measures the degree of burnout in the dimensions of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA). This study reported the findings from a sample of 52 contractual teachers working in 13 schools run by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi.

Introduction

Teaching has always been seen as a very reputed and respected job and teachers were perceived as role models for their students and also for the community they belong to, they used to live very simple lives and had very few task to perform and major one among them was teaching, but now a days knowledge and technological explosion put pressure on the perspective teachers, apart from this insecurity of losing their job or insecurity about the renewal of contract put additional pressure on teachers.

In the recent times life becomes a rat race and every individual wants to become more successful to his counterpart, this attitude put pressure on his competitor as well as on himself, struggle for success starts right from their birth and ends with their lives, some people become use to this system and work harder for their success, but some people get frustrated from this rat race and feel callous, become emotionally exhausted, same thing is happening with contractual teachers, sometimes they feel emotionally deprived, Frustrated, powerless, Hopeless, Detached and Being trapped and even felt that they are failed at what they are doing. When a person feels low and has lost faith in him, it is known as burn out. Farber (1991) defined burnout as “A work related syndrome that stems from an individual’s perception of a significant discrepancy between effort and reward.”, Maslach, (1982) presented a socio-psychological approach with the picture of a burnout individual as one having ‘nothing to give’ and not caring any more, and pointed out towards three core characteristics of Burnout, which are commonly included in all, are:



Figure 1
Components of Burnout Syndrome

This happened with the individuals who have a feeling that they are not important, that their work is endless and thankless as there is no recognition, no appreciation and no advancement. Actually burnout is a state of prolonged stress resulting in emotional drain, low self-esteem and self concept and severe depression, Emotional Exhaustion is a state where emotional resources are used up and the person is unable to give his maximum at the psychological level, Depersonalization is the feeling of an individual that he has lost his identity and Reduced Personal Accomplishment refers to the tendency to evaluate oneself inferior to others, particularly with regards to one’s work with client. Studies have shown that role conflict, role ambiguity and role overload as the chief causes of burnout.Capel and Susan, s. (1987); Dabrowski (1991); Mishra and Sahu (1993); Kijai, Jimmy, Totten, Donald L. (1995); Sermon, (1995). While, Capel and Susan, s. (1987); Henry (1993); Shrivastava, Poornima (1994); H.M. Kashinath (1996); Ushashree (1993); Ghorpede, Jai; Lackritz, Jim and Singh, Gangaram (2007)) has found relationship between burnout and demographic variables such as sex, age, marital status and years of experience.

Objectives Of The Present Study

To find out the degree of burnout among teachers working on contractual bases.

Methods And Techniqes

Participants in this study were teachers of government schools run by the municipal corporation of Delhi. Researcher used Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to find out the magnitude of burnout among contractual teachers of MCD schools; it is the most widely used tool to measure the magnitude of burnout syndrome. The MBI is a 22 item likert-type rating scale. Items are written in the form of statements about personal feelings or attitudes. The frequency scale is categorized at each point, ranging from 0 (never) to 6 (everyday). The MBI is designed to assess the three aspects of the burnout syndrome – emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. Each aspect is measured by separate sub - scales. Detail of the sub-scales and number of items are shown in the below mentioned

Table 1
Range of Scores and no. of Items


Factors No. Of Items In MBI High Moderate Low
Emotional Exhaustion 09 30 - above 18 - 29 0 - 17
Depersonalization 05 12 - above 6 - 11 0 - 5
Personal Accomplishment 08 0 - 33 34 - 39 40 - above

Administration Of The Scale

The MBI is a self reporting instrument; subjects were requested to read the instructions carefully and then respond to the questions. They were encouraged to answer each item freely and frankly. It was emphasized that no item should be ignored. There was no time limit; however, it took about 15 to 20 minutes to complete it.

Procedure of Data Collection

For the study, the researcher administered the MBI to four contractual teachers in 13 selected MCD schools of central zone of Delhi.

Analysis of Data

Teachers’ responses were then scored in accordance with the scoring key, based on their scores for MBI; they were categorized as having high, moderate and low level of burnout.

In the present study, the investigator used appropriate statistical techniques available for treatment of the data. In order to analyze the data with accordance to the objective, scores of each teacher were noted against each sub scale of the tool. In order to study the status of burnout their mean and standard deviation were computed. Qualitative analysis on the basis of percentage has also been done.

Study of Burnout Syndrome in contractual Teachers

The objective of the present study was to assess the degree of burnout in contractual teachers, for this teacher scores on MBI has been categorized under above mentioned three components.

As per the manual the level of the above dimensions were worked out. The details are given in Table – 2.


Table 1
Range of Scores and no. of Items


S.No. Dimensions of Burnout Mean SD Level
1. Emotional Exhaustion 12.61 7.45 Low
2. Depersonalization 7.61 4.45 Moderate
3. Personal Accomplishment 32.10 9.80 High

On comparing the results (shown in table – 2) from MBI norms, researcher finds that contractual teachers experienced low level of burnout in terms of Emotional Exhaustion (EE), as its mean score is 12.61, these teachers experienced moderate level of burnout in terms of depersonalization (DP), as their mean scores are 7.61 and when it comes to personal accomplishment (PA), they feel high level of burnout as their mean scores are 32.10. The same results have also been illustrated through Figure - 2.


Descriptive Analysis of the Data Related to Burnout Syndrome in Teachers

In order to support the whole story stated above, a descriptive analysis of the dimensions of burnout syndrome viz. emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment is also given in tables 3(a), 3(b), 4(a), 4(b), 5(a) and 5(b)

Descriptive Analysis of Responses of Teachers with Regard to Emotional Exhaustion

Descriptive analyses in terms of level of emotional exhaustion of teachers have also been worked out and the same is given in table 3(a).


Table 3(a)
Item Wise Analysis of Emotional Exhaustion


Statements/ responses Never A few times a year Once a month A few times a month Once a week A few times a week everyday
I feel emotionally drained from my work. 8(15) 6(11) 6(11) 10(19) 22(42)
I used up at the end of the work day. 4(8) 36(69) 4(8) 8(15)
I feel fatigued when I get up in the morning and have to face another day on job. 34(65) 10(19) 8(15)
Working with people at school all the day is really a strain for me. 34(65) 10(19) 8(15)
I feel burnout from my work. 34(65) 6(11) 12(23)
I feel frustrated by my job. 22(42) 12(23) 6(11) 12(23)
I feel I am working too hard on my job. 34(65) 4(8) 6(11) 8(15)
Working with people at school directly puts too much stress on me. 34(65) 6(11) 2 (4) 10(19)
I feel that I am at the end of my rope. 36(69) 4 (8) 12(23)

From table 3(a), it is observed that about only 15 % teachers stated that they never felt drained from their work, whereas 42% teachers felt drained once in a week, In response to the second statement, 69 % of contractual teachers said that, they never felt used up a few times in a year, In response of statement number three, 65 % teachers said that, they never felt tired when they get up in the morning for going to the job. It is also observed that, 65 % teachers never felt strain when they work with people in school. From the responses of contractual teachers related to statement number five, it is observed that, 65 % teachers never felt burnout, whereas 23 % felt burnt out once in a month, it may also be observed that, about 43 % teachers said that they never get frustrated from their job, whereas 23 % of them felt frustrated a few times in a year and same number of teachers felt frustrated a few times in a week. From the responses of contractual teachers, it is also observed that, 65 % teachers never felt that they are working too hard on their job. The responses to the ninth statement related to emotional exhaustion shows that, 69 % teachers never felt that they are almost finished as they are at the end of their rope, whereas 23 % teachers felt it once in a month.

The responses of contractual teachers have also been analyzed in terms of percentage of teachers falling under various categories emotional exhaustion. The same has been shown in Table 3(b).


Table – 3(b)
Level of Emotional Exhaustion in Teachers


S.No. MBI Interval N Percentage Level of Emotional Exhaustion Level of Burnout
1. 0 – 17 15 58 Low Low
2. 18 – 29 7 27 Moderate Moderate
3. 30 and above 4 15 High High
Total 26 100

From the Table 3(b), it may be noticed, that about 58 % of teachers fall under low level of emotional exhaustion, whereas 27 % of them fall under moderate level of emotional exhaustion, and 15 % teachers fall under high level of same dimension. The results have also been represented diagrammatically in the following figure.


Descriptive Analysis of Responses of Teachers with Regard to Emotional Exhaustion

Descriptive analyses in terms of level of depersonalization of teachers have also been worked out and the same is given in table 4(a).

Table 4(a)
Item Wise Analysis of Depersonalization


Statements/ responses Never A few times a year Once a month A few times a month Once a week A few times a week everyday
I feel I treat some students as if they were impersonal objects. 12(23) 20(38) 10(19) 10(19)
I have become more callous towards people since I took up this job. 22(42) 10(19) 2(4) 6(11) 6(11) 4(8)
I worry that this job is hardening me emotionally. 18(35) 16(31) 6(11) 8(15) 2(4) 2(4)
I don’t really care what happens to some students. 18(35) 14(27) 12(23) 8(15)
I feel students blame me for some of their problems. 16(31) 24(47) 6(11) 6(11)

From Table 4(a), it may be observed that about 38 % teachers stated that, a few times in a year, they treat student as impersonal object, whereas 23 % said that they never treat students as a impersonal object, In response to the second statement, 20 % of contractual teachers said that, they felt callous a few times in a year, whereas 42 % of them never felt like this, in response of third statement 35 % teachers said that, they had never experienced that this job is hardening them emotionally, whereas 31 % teachers, felt like this, a few times in a year. Table 4 (a) shows that, 35 % teachers said that they always care to the students, whereas 27 % teachers said they neglect students a few times in a year, the responses to the fifth statement related to the depersonalization shows that, 31 % teachers never felt that students blame them for their problem, whereas 47 % teachers felt that students blame them but that is happened a few times in a year. The responses of contractual teachers have also been analyzed in terms of percentage of teachers falling under various categories of depersonalization. The same has been shown in Table 4(b)

Table – 4(b)
Level of Depersonalization in Contractual Teachers


S.No. MBI Interval N Percentage Level of Depersonalization Level of Burnout
1. < 9 6 23 Low Low
2. 0 – 13 18 69.2 Moderate Moderate
3. 14 and above 2 7.8 High High
Total 26 100

Table 4(b) reveals that, 23 % of teachers fall under low level of depersonalization, whereas 69.2 % teachers fall under moderate level of depersonalization and there were only 7.8 % teachers who fall under high level of depersonalization. The above given percentage distribution is shown in the figure 4.


Descriptive Analysis of Responses of Teachers with Regard to Personal Accomplishment

Descriptive analyses in terms of level of personal accomplishment of teachers have also been worked out and the sam is given in Table 5(a).

Table 5(a)
Item Wise Analysis of Personal Accomplishment


Statements/ responses Never A few times a year Once a month A few times a month Once a week A few times a week everyday
I feel emotionally drained from my work. 11(42) 8(31) 5(19) 2(8)
I deal very effectively with the problems of my students 4(15) 3(11) 15(57) 3(11) 1(4)
I feel I am positively influencing other people’s lives through my work. 4(15) 4(15) 11(42) 5(19) 2(8)
I feel very energetic. 1(4) 8(31) 6(23) 7(27) 4(15)
I feel exhilarated after working closely with students. 2(8) 20(76) 2(8) 2(8)
I can easily create a relaxed atmosphere with my students. 6(23) 12(46) 6(23) 2(8)
I have accomplished many worthwhile things in this job. 8(31) 8(31) 8(31) 2(8)
I my work I deal with emotional problems very calmly 16(62) 8(31) 2(8)

From table 5(a), it is observed that, there were 42 % teachers who felt that they understand the feelings of the students a few times in a month, whereas 31 % teachers felt like this once a week, In response to the second statement, 57 % of contractual teachers said that, once a week they deal effectively with the problems of the students, it is also observed that, 42 % teachers felt that once in a week, they are able to influence others lives through their work. From the responses of contractual teachers to the statement number four, it is observed that, 31 % teacher felts themselves energetic for few times in a week, whereas 27 % teachers give their responses in favour of a few times in a week. Table 5 (a) shows that, about 46 % teachers felt exhilarated a few times a month, whereas 23% feels exhilarated a few times in a week. In response to the seventh statement, 31 % of teachers felt a few times a month and once a week that, they have accomplished many worthy things in the job, whereas 30 % felt like it a few times in a week. The responses to the statement number eight related to personal accomplishment, 61 % teachers felt that, at least once in a week, they deal with emotional problems very calmly, whereas 31 % felt like this few times in a week. The responses of teachers have also been analyzed in terms of percentage of teachers falling under various categories personal accomplishment. The same has been shown in Table 5(b).


Table – 5(b)
Frequency Table of Frequency of Personal
Accomplishment in Contractual Teachers


S.No. MBI Interval N Percentage Level of Depersonalization Level of Burnout
1. <37 and above 3 11.6 Low Low
2. 31 - 36 8 30.8 Moderate Moderate
3. < 31 15 57.6 High High
Total 26 100

Table 5(b) reveals that the sample of teachers taken for the study has 11.6 % teachers who experienced low level of burnout in terms of personal accomplishment, 30.8 % teachers of the sample experienced moderate level of burnout and 57.6 % teachers experienced high level of burnout in this dimension of burnout. It is shown in figure 5 below.



Some Remedial Measures

It is really unfortunate see that torch bearers for future generation are feeling burnt out, it is necessary for our education system to keep them calm, composed and focused on making future right and bright. Government and local bodies, who are responsible for providing education, should take care of these issues, they should figure out the reason, why teachers are facing this syndrome and must take some remedial step to overcome this problem. Some of the suggested remedies are as follows:

  • Government should try to talk to them and find the reason for this.
  • Provide them job stability.
  • Give them equal pay as permanent teachers.
  • Give them all the facilities available for other teachers.
  • Appoint counselor for them.
  • Give incentives time to time, may be in terms of increment or rewards.

Conclusion

On the basis of above findings we may conclude that teachers who are working on contractual bases experienced low level of burnout in dimension of Emotional Exhaustion, they experienced moderate level of burnout in terms of depersonalization, experience high level of burnout in terms of personal accomplishment. But percentage wise analysis indicates that there were few teachers who experienced high level of burnout in all three dimensions. Instead, it is still obligatory for the authorities to take care of this kind of syndrome and they should figure out the reasons and provide remedies for the same.

REFERENCES

  • Anthony, Gray (1987). Teachers Burnout in Public Schools, State University of New York Press.
  • Arora, A. K. (2004). A Study of Burnout Syndrome Among Primary School Teachers and its Effect on Teacher Efficiency, Ph. D, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.
  • Cherniss, C. (1980). Staff burnout: Job Stress in the Human Services, Beverly Hills London, Sage Publications.
  • Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff Burnout, Journal of Social Issues, 30 (1), 159 – 165.
  • Kudva, Pramila (2000). Professional Aspect and Teacher Burnout- A Relationship. University News, vol.38 (7). 13-17.
  • Kumar, A. (2006). A Comparative Study of Teachers Burnout and Teacher’s Efficacy in Different Types of Schools in Delhi, M. Ed Dissertation, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.
  • Maslach, C., and Jackson, S. (1986). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual. Palo Alto, Consulting Psychologist Press.
  • Mishra, K.N. (1991). Interrelationship between Organizational Conflict in School Teacher’s Stress and Burnout, in Relation to Teacher’s Personality at Primary Level.Indian Educational Review vol.29 no.1-4.



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