Vol.1 No.1 July - December 2013 ISSN: 2321 - 6530

ATTITUDE OF ELEMENTARY TEACHERS TOWARDS IN-SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAMME (ORGANIZED BY SSA)



Manoj Kumar
Ph.D. Scholar, R.I.E.,(NCERT) Bhubaneswar
Contact No. – 9430160282
Email I.D – manojjsr2009@gmail.com


Abstract

This descriptive study determines the unfavourable attitude towards in-service training programme. In the present study purposive sampling was used to select one district out of 28 districts of Jharkhand i.e. East Singhbhum, then random sampling was used to select 4 blocks of East Singhbhum by lottery system. In order to collect data, the researcher needed an attitude scale to measure the attitude of teachers towards in-service training programme. An attitude scale was not available which would suit the Indian conditions, so the researcher developed a Likert type of an attitude scale. The Likert scale used was Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree and Strongly Disagree. Data was collected from the East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. Four blocks were selected as sample. 120 teachers, who had taken in-service training, were selected as sample. The present study is quantitative in nature so it needs to be statistically analyzed. The present study aims at finding the attitude of elementary teachers with respect to variables like gender and age. Results indicate that elementary teachers under 30 years of female and male age group have average attitude towards in-service training programme but elementary teachers in-between 30-40 years and above 40 years of female and male age group have below average attitude towards in-service training programme. Female teachers have slightly higher attitude than male teacher.

Key words:- Attitude towards in-service training programme, Likert Scale.

Introduction

Education moulds the overall personality of its recipient; helps her to meet her needs and aspirations. It is the catalytic factor which leads to Human Resource Development (HRD) comprising better health, nutrition, improved socio economic opportunities and more congenial and beneficial natural environment for all. It is a process of development, in which efforts are made for harmonious development of an individual’s personality. A teacher can strive for all round development of his/her students when he/she organizes a wide variety of activities in schools along with academic subjects and students are exposed to such activities.

The goal of education for all (EFA) has been receiving priority at international level and has been regarded as an essential precondition for human development. Education has been included in the Child Right under Right for Development. Providing basic education to all children has been emphasized in the UN resolutions adopted at Jomtien, Dakar and other places. For the last five decades, Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) and the fulfillment of the mandate of Indian constitution have been attracting the attention of educational planners, administrators, educationist and the nation as a whole.

The Ntional Policy on Education, 1986 and 1992 have given top priority to the achievement of goals of universal elementary education. Education of children of 6-14 years age group has been made a fundamental right by the 86th constitutional Amendment Act. Many projects and programmes have been undertaken at micro and macro levels in the past in this direction which have resulted in considerable progress in providing access to elementary education, increase in enrolment and retention, improvement in school attendance and generation of strong demand for education, especially for girls. However, inter-state and inter-district differences in pupil attendance and their achievement level, continue to prevail. The pupil achievement has particularly been low, which has caused concern at every level.

In order to speed the achievement of the goals of universal elementary education, the National Elementary Education Mission (NEEM) was constituted in 2001 under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister and Vice-Chairmanship of the Minister of Human Resource Development, Government of India. Similar Mission has also been constituted at state levels under the chairmanship of the Chief Minister of the state. A number of programmes and projects have over the years been implemented to provide experiences useful for achieving the constitutionally mandated goal.

Implementation of various programmes and keeping in view the needs, the Government has launched the programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) in 2000, the main objective being to accelerate the achievement of UEE. It is a holistic and convergent programme targeting both primary and upper primary classes in all districts of the country. SSA in an effort to improve the performance of school system and provide community owned quality elementary education in the mission mode. This programme became particularly necessary because many states were not covered by any of the externally funded educational programmes such as DPEPP, BEP, Lok Jumbish etc, thereby depriving them of the benefits. Even in case of states covered under externally funded programmes, all the areas did not benefit.

The teachers play a key role in teaching and in facilitation of students learning. The quality of education, to a great extent, depends on ‘what is taught’ and ‘how it is taught’. Teachers influence the learning of students not only through classroom teaching but also through their own personality, expectations, attitudes, personal behaviour and unique perceptions. The kind of ambience that teachers create for learning in their schools is an amalgamated product of all these characteristics within the school settings, on the one hand, and the learners and what they bring to classrooms, in terms of family background, readiness to learn, mental capabilities and so on. Teacher’s educational qualification, training and personal commitment and skills are crucial inputs and have a direct bearing on the quality of education. There is a need of some sort of provision which may make the teachers up-to-date with respect to the knowledge of his subject of teaching, methods and techniques, innovative ideas in each sphere of his academic life. For this reason, the idea of In-service education has emerged.

Inservice education (training) may be defined as continuous education of teachers and other educators which commences after initial professional education is over and which leads to the improvement of professional competence of educations throughout their careers. According to M. B. Buch (1974), a former director of the Department of field services, “In-service education is thus a programme of activities aiming at the continuing growth of teachers and educational personnel in-service.” The competencies namely contextual, conceptual, content, transactional, educational activities, developing teaching materials, evaluation, management, working with parents and working with community and other agencies are significant and need to be promoted among teachers for making them professionally competent. These competencies can be developed through pre-service and in-service training. Short and long term courses may be organized periodically for their growth and development. It will not only help them to grow professionally but will also help in improving the quality of Universal elementary education.

The training should normally be in relation to the needs and requirements of teachers and schools, taking into consideration emerging trends and concerns in education. The term training is specially defined and explained in the glossary of training terms published in 1971 in London by the department of employment. The term training has been defined as “Systematic development of attitude, knowledge, skill, behaviour patterns required by an individual in order to perform adequately a given job or task.” National Curriculum Framework (2005) stated that in-service education plays a significant role in the professional growth of teachers. It helps the teachers to gain confidence by engaging with their practices and reaffirming their experiences. It provides opportunity to engage with other teachers professionally and update knowledge.

It helps the teachers to overcome their lack of confidence.

SSA envisaged provision for trained and committed teachers in all schools. It intends to improve the quality of pre-service and in-service teacher education. Teachers working in primary/upper primary schools in different states/UTs of the country have varied backgrounds so far as context and pedagogy knowledge, motivational level, qualifications and level of training are concerned. In some states/UTs large numbers of teachers have not undergone pre-service training and are under qualified. There is a need to prepare a comprehensive training design for different category of teachers working in primary and upper primary schools such as in-service teachers, newly recruited teachers, under qualified teacher, head teachers and teachers working at BRCs and CRCs etc.

For organizing in-service training for elementary teacher the following principles needs to be followed:-

  • In-service training programmes needs to be built on the basis of the felt needs and sharing of experiences of the teachers. There is a need to give teachers a space to develop and listen to their own voice.
  • In-service training programme needs to be designed with a clear sense of the aims and how the strategies of the programme are going to achieve these aims.
  • The content of in-service programme must be such that teachers can relate to their own experience and also find opportunities to reflect on these experiences.
  • In-service training programmes that compromise on the profession identity of the teachers and their autonomy will be unsustainable in the long runs, providing very little psychological motivation for the teacher to internalize what they have been told about classroom practices.
  • In-service training programmes that seek to develop or alter basic practices need to be planned based on extensive interactions over time with the teachers as well as the trainers.
  • The practice of a teacher cannot be developed through quick fix strategies and activities without the development of an accompanying framework/ theory based on the process of learning and the aims of education.
  • Interaction between the teachers must not be compromised on any account. The use of electronic media in place of human interaction is non-negotiable. However electronic media should be used in a way that it supports teachers interaction.
Significance Of The Study

Attitudes are emotionalized mental state towards ones job. It involves feeling about something and this feeling aspect is very important. The favourable attitude is very necessary in order to succeed in the job. Favourable attitudes make better performance. A teacher with favourable attitude towards training increase the competencies in teaching which further motivate the student in learning.

Sreedevi (2001) conducted a study to know the attitude of primary school teachers of Kerala towards the inservice training programme based on newly revised school curriculum. She found an unfavourable attitude of primary school teachers towards the inservice training programmes. Majority of teachers responded that the available inservice training programmes did not improve their creativity and programmes were ineffective to improve their instructional skill. Panchbhai (1990) found that the negative attitude of the teachers towards the inservice programmes has not changed. The study reported that teachers were not genuinely interested in the inservice education programme. Beauchamp (1997) examined the attitudes of teachers to the current strategies and reports on the use of audiocassette tapes as on alternative source for INSET, which supported the teachers through an active involvement within the classrooms. Low self –esteem of inservice teachers and insufficient access to in-service training, which help them to use their abilities constructively, were reported in the study.

All elementary teachers should have a positive attitude towards inservice training programme then we can think of better achievement in different subjects among the students. Keeping this study in mind, ‘Attitude of Elementary teachers towards inservice training programmes (organised by SSA)’ was conducted.

Objectives Of The Study

  1. To study the attitude of in-service training teachers in relation to gender.
  2. To study the attitude of in-service training teachers in relation to different age group.

Hypothesis Of The Study

There would be no significant difference in attitude towards training with respect to gender and different age group.

Methodology

The present research is a survey to study the attitude of elementary teachers towards in-service training programme. The population of the present study consists of all the school teachers teaching in the schools of Jharkhand.

Sample

In the present study purposive sampling was used to select one district out of 28 district of Jharkhand i.e. East Singhbhum then random sampling was used to select 4 blocks of East Singhbhum by lottery system.

In order to collect data, the researcher needed an attitude scale to measure the attitude of teachers towards in-service training. An attitude scale was not available which would suit the Indian conditions. The researcher then decided to develop an attitude scale- researcher developed that statement for the scale which covers almost all aspects of in-service training. The first draft of the scale was given to experts for comments. Some items were modified as per their suggestions. Some were eliminated and some statements were added. The final scale was used for the pilot study. For the present investigation, a likert type of attitude scale was constructed. The likert scale used was Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree and Strongly Disagree.

Scoring Of Likert Scale

Table 1- Weight age for Favourable Statement

In order to collect data, the researcher needed an attitude scale to measure the attitude of teachers towards in-service training. An attitude scale was not available which would suit the Indian conditions. The researcher then decided to develop an attitude scale- researcher developed that statement for the scale which covers almost all aspects of in-service training. The first draft of the scale was given to experts for comments. Some items were modified as per their suggestions. Some were eliminated and some statements were added. The final scale was used for the pilot study. For the present investigation, a likert type of attitude scale was constructed. The likert scale used was Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree and Strongly Disagree.

Scoring Of Likert Scale

Table 1- Weight age for Favourable Statement

Table 2- Weight age for Unfavourable Statement

Table 3- Details of scale measuring attitude of elementary teachers towards in-service training programme

Administration Of Tool

Data was collected from the East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. Four blocks were selected for sample. 120 teachers were selected for sample those who have taken Inservice training

The present study is quantitative in nature so it needs to be statistically analyzed. The present study aims at finding the attitude of elementary teachers with respect to variables like gender and age. For this mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA were used.

Data Analysis
  1. Comparison of mean value to study the attitude of elementary teacher towards inservice training programme in relation to gender :-
  2. The first objective of the study is to study the attitude of elementary teacher towards inservice training programme in relation to gender. For this investigation t-value is given in table-4

    Table – 4 :- T - Value of Male & Female Teachers on Attitude Scale

    The table 4 indicates that the mean value of female teacher is 41.04 and the male teacher is 36.50. The obtained t-value 2.45 is greater than the table‘t’ value of 1.98 for 118 degrees of freedom at .05 level of significance. So the null hypothesis is rejected at .05 levels. So it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in attitude of female and male teachers towards inservice teacher training programme.

    The result of this study goes with the findings of sreedevi (2001) an unfavourable attitude of primary school teachers towards the inservice training programmes. Majority of teachers responded that the available inservice training programmes did not improve their creativity and programmes were ineffective to improve their instructional skill. Hendricks and sloan (1981) indicated teachers negative attitude towards mainstreaming.

  3. Comparison of different age group to study the attitude of elementary teachers towards inservice training programme in relation to age
  4. The second objective of the study is to study the attitude of elementary teacher towards inservice training programme is relation to age. For this investigation F-value and t- value are given in following table-

    Table 5:- F test on Female Teachers in relatives to Age- below 30 Yrs, in-between 30 Yrs, above 40 Yrs

    The table 5 reveals that the obtained F-value 185.01 is greater than the table ‘F’ value of 4.92 at .01 level of significance. So the null hypothesis is rejected at .01 level. Hence there is difference between three age group of female teacher.

Table – 6:- t- Value of below 30 yrs female teacher and in-between 30-40 yrs female Teachers on Attitude Scale

The table 6 indicate that the mean value of below 30 years female teacher is 52.39 and in-between 30-40 years female teacher is 40.00. The obtained ‘t’ value 11.39 is greater than the table ‘t’ value of 2.68 for 49 degrees of freedom at .01 level of significance. So the null hypothesis is rejected at .01 levels. So it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in attitude of below 30 years female teachers and in-between 30-40 years female teachers towards inservice teachers training programme.

Table – 7:- t -Value of in-between 30-40 yrs female teacher and above 40 yrs female Teachers on Attitude Scale

The table 7 indicates that the mean value of in-between 30-40 years female teacher is 40.00 and above 40 years female teacher is 28.84. The obtained ‘t’ value 10.63 is greater than the table ‘t’ value of 2.69 for 45 degrees of freedom at .01 level of significance. So the null hypothesis is rejected at .01 levels. So it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in attitude of in-between 30-40 years female teachers and above 40 years female teachers towards inservice teachers training programme.

Table – 8:- t -Value of below 30 yrs female teacher and above 40 yrs female Teachers on Attitude Scale

The table 8 indicates that the mean value of below 30 years female teacher is 52.39 and above 40 years female teacher is 28.84. The obtained‘t’ value 16.81 is greater than the table ‘t’ value of 2.71 for 40 degrees of freedom at .01 level of significance. So the null hypothesis is rejected at .01 levels. So it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in attitude of below 30 years female teachers and above 40 years female teachers towards inservice teachers training programme.

Table 9:- F test on Male Teachers in relation to Age- below 30 Yrs, in-between 30-40 Yrs, above 40 Yrs.

The table 9 reveals that the obtained F- value 124.64 is greater than the table ‘F’ value of 5.11 at .01 level of significance. So the null hypothesis is rejected at .01 level. Hence there is difference between three age group of male teacher.

Table – 10:- t - Value of below 30 yrs male teacher and in-between 30-40 yrs male Teachers on Attitude Scale

The table 10 indicates that the mean value of below 30 years male teacher 47.57 and in-between 30-40 years male teacher is 34.55. The obtained‘t’ value 9.28 is greater than the table ‘t’ value of 2.72 for 35 degrees of freedom at .01 level of significance. So the null hypothesis is rejected at .01 levels. So it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in attitude of below 30 years male teachers and in-between 30-40 years male teachers towards inservice teachers training programme.

Table – 11:- t - Value of in-between 30-40 yrs male teacher and above 40 yrs male Teachers on Attitude Scale

The table 11 indicates that the mean value of in-between 30-40 years male teacher is 34.55 and above 40 years male teacher is 24.62. The obtained‘t’ value 9.27 is greater than the table ‘t’ value of 2.75 for 31 degrees of freedom at .01 level of significance. So the null hypothesis is rejected at .01 levels. So it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in attitude of in-between 30-40 years male teachers and above 40 years male teachers towards inservice teachers training programme.

Table – 12:- t - Value of below 30 yrs male teacher and above 40 yrs male Teachers on Attitude Scale

The table 12 indicates that the mean value of below 30 years male teacher is 47.88 and above 40 years male teacher is 24.62. The obtained‘t’ value 13.54 is greater than the table ‘t’ value of 2.75 for 28 degrees of freedom at .01 level of significance. So the null hypothesis is rejected at .01 levels. So it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in attitude of below 30 years male teachers and above 40 years male teachers towards inservice teachers training programme.

Conclusion

Elementary teachers of Jharkhand have unfavourable attitude towards in-service training programme. Elementary teachers under 30 years of female and male age group have average attitude towards in-service training programme but elementary teachers in-between 30-40 years and above 40 years of female and male age group have below average attitude towards in-service training programme. Female teachers have slightly higher attitude than male teacher.


REFERENCES

  • Beauchamp, G. (1997). In-service education and training in the classroom, British Journal of In-service education. Vol 23, No.2, 1997, pp.205-218
  • Best, J. W., and Kahn, J. V. (1989). Researcher in Education (6th ed.), New Jersey : Prentice Hall, Englewood Clifts. pp 24 – 25.
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  • Garrett, H. E. (1973). Statistics in Psychology and Education, Bombay : Allied Pacific Private Limited, pp. 356 – 368.
  • Hendricks, I. & Sloan, C.A. (1981). A study of the impact of an inservive program on the concerns and needs of secondary teachers toward mainstreaming, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 243265).
  • MHRD (1986, 1992). National Policy on Education, POA, MHRD, New Delhi.
  • MHRD (2003). Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, Framework for Implementation, Department of Elementary Education and Literacy, MHRD, New Delhi.
  • National Curriculum Framework, NCERT, New Delhi
  • Panchbhai, P.V. (1990). A survey of reactions of primary and secondary school teachers of western Nagpur regarding the comprehensive inservice education programme for the guidance of the teachers under the national education policy, M.Phil. Edn. Nagpur University. In M.B. Buch (Ed.), Fifth Survey of Research in Education. New Delhi: NCERT.
  • Sreedevi, M. (2001). Attitude of primary school teachers towards the training programmes of the newly revised curriculum, Unpublished M.Ed. Dissertation. School of Pedagogical Sciences. Mahatma Gandhi University.



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